The Galápagos tortoise complex, or Galápagos giant tortoise complex, are the biggest living types of tortoise. They are also known as Chelonoidis nigra. Present day Galápagos tortoises can weigh up to 417 kg. The Galápagos tortoises are local to seven of the Galápagos Islands, a volcanic archipelago around 1,000 km west of the Ecuadorian terrain. With life expectancies in the wild of more than 100 years, it is one of the longest-lived vertebrates. A hostage individual inhabited slightest 170 years.
The Galápagos Islands were found in 1535, yet initially showed up on the maps, of Abraham Ortelius and Gerardus Mercator, around 1570. The islands were named “” Islands of the Tortoises or Insulae de los Galopegos due to the monster tortoises found there. Spanish voyagers, who found the islands in the sixteenth century, named them after the Spanish galápago, signifying “tortoise”. Today monster tortoises exist just on 2 remote archipelagos, the Galápagos one thousand km due west of Ecuador, and Aldabra in the Indian Ocean, 700 km east of Tanzania.
Shell size and shape differ between populaces. On islands with damp good lands, the tortoises are bigger, with domed shells and short necks; on islands with dry swamps, the tortoises are littler, with “saddleback” shells and long necks. In 1835 Charles Darwin’s perceptions of these distinctions on the second voyage of the Beagle, added to the improvement of his theory of evolution.
Tortoise numbers declined from more than 250,000 in the sixteenth century to a low of around three thousand (3000) in the 1970s. This decrease was due to overexploitation and killing of the species for oil and meat, habitats clearance for horticulture, and acquaintance of non-local creatures in the islands, for example, rats, goats, and pigs.
The annihilation of most monster tortoise genealogies is thought to have additionally been brought on by predation by people or human progenitors, as the tortoises themselves have no common predators. Tortoise populaces on no less than three islands have turned out to be wiped out in authentic time because of human exercises. Examples of these terminated taxa exist in a few exhibition halls and furthermore are being subjected to DNA investigation. Ten subspecies of the first 15 make due in the wild; an eleventh subspecies C. n. abingdonii had just a solitary known living individual, kept in imprisonment and nicknamed Lonesome George until his demise in June 2012. Protection endeavors, starting in the twentieth century, have brought about a large number of hostage reared adolescents being discharged onto their tribal home islands, and the aggregate number of the species is assessed to have surpassed 19,000 toward the begin of the 21st century. Regardless of this bounce back, the species all in all is named “helpless” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.